Research Article


Orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) often have worse educational, developmental, nutritional, and behavioral outcomes than non‐OVC. Much of these disparities come from reduced household earnings due to the loss of parental income. The present study used conditional process analysis to evaluate income and savings among OVC households, using cross‐sectional data from 1,060 OVC in a 3‐year Kenyan empowerment program that combined elements of cash transfer, psychosocial support, and small business entrepreneurship. Higher monthly earnings were significantly associated with program participation in a graded fashion. Approximately one‐third of the association was mediated by material inputs, indicating that a substantial portion may be explained by other unobserved program elements. Eighty‐five percent of increased rates of saving money in the past year were mediated by improved monthly income, cash transferred and improved food consumption. Data analysis highlights the need for multisectoral approaches and the need for more research to understand how to improve household economic stability among OVC.


International Journal of Social Welfare Goodman, M.L., Gitari, S., Keiser, P. & Raimer-Goodman, L.A. (2016, in press)